House Dust Mite Allergens: New Discoveries and Relevance to the Allergic Patient

Thomas WR

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Sep;16(9):69. 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Recent findings on house dust allergens and their contribution to knowledge that will significantly impact on current and future allergy treatments are appraised.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Quantitation of IgE binding to a spectrum of allergen components in several independent studies in varying locations has largely affirmed the main components as the groups 1 and 2 and possibly 23 allergens with mid-tier contributions from the groups 4, 5, 7, and 21. Prevalent binding to Der p 23 has been recapitulated sometimes with low titers. The IgE of non-asthmatic atopic subjects binds at lower titer and to fewer components than that of asthmatics, and their IgG binding relative to IgE is higher especially for children hospitalized for exacerbation. The higher IgG ratios were associated with increased IL-10 a cytokine more readily induced from T cells of allergic subjects. Peptides representing the groups 1 and 2 allergens can be used to stimulate ex vivo T cells showing responses correlating with IgE binding and providing a valuable tool for ascertaining the contribution of IgE and T cells to disease. Also, the induction of Th2 and follicular helper T cells are shown to make different contributions in mice. Cross-reactivity of IgE binding assays with high-titer cross-reactive antibodies induced by scabies is a problem in the many areas of the world where scabies is highly prevalent and endemic and from recent increases in immigration. In the last few years, allergen research has produced results that warrant rapid translation into diagnostic tools and the formulation of allergen components for immunotherapy.

KEYWORDS:

Allergen; Dermatophagoides; House dust mite; IgE; IgG; T cell

Abstract on Pubmed